The Political Identity of Ulama in the 2014 Indonesian Presidential Election

Leni Winarni

Abstract


The Indonesian presidential election of 2014 was possibly the most exciting, lively, intriguing, emotional, and brutish in the history of presidential elections since reformation in 1998. This paper explores the relationship between the political identities of ulama and their political views in the 2014 Indonesian presidential election. It  argues that their political endorsement of presidential candidates is not based on interest but on their political identity. By using constructivist ideas about identity, ulama’s political identities are constantly changing and influenced by factors beyond identity. This idea also emphasizes that identity is created and subjective. Transformation of the political identities of ulama is a way of showing their existence in the period since Indonesian independence in 1945. This paper explores how the political identities expressed by ulama influenced voters in the recent presidential election. How did their political identity affect both the kinds of political measures they took and their support for one of the president candidates? Did the ulama play a substantial political role in election of President Joko Widodo, or were there other factors? Is their political identity the salient factor in their support for either Prabowo Subianto or Joko Widodo?
[Pemilu presiden tahun 2014 memang sangat menarik, hidup, penuh emosi, bahkan penuh intrik, jika dibandingkan dengan sebelumnya sejak 1998. Paper ini meneliti hubungan politik identitas yang dibawa oleh ulama dan pandangan politiknya pada pemilihan presiden Indonesia tahun 2014. Paper ini menemukan bahwa pandangan mereka tentang calon presiden tidak sertamerta menyangkut kepentingan politik, tetapi lebih pada politik identitas. Politik identitas para ulama terus berubah dan dipengaruhi oleh banyak hal di luar identitas tersebut. Ini juga menegaskan bahwa identitas itu ciptaan dan sekaligus subjektif. Transformasi politik identitas para ulama merupakan cara mereka menampakkan keberadaannya, bahkan sejak masa kemerdekaan 1945. Paper ini meneliti politik identitas yang ditampakkan para ulama yang mempengaruhi para pemilih dalam pemilu presiden. Bagaimana politik identitas itu berpengaruh pada politik dan pilihan serta dukungan presiden? Apakah ulama memainkan sesuatu dalam proses terpilihnya Presiden Joko Widodo, atau adakah faktor lain? Apakah hanya identitas yang menjadi satu-satunya faktor  untuk mendukung Prabowo Subianto atau Joko Widodo?]

Full Text:

PDF

References


“Alasan Forum Ulama Haramkan Memilih Jokowi-JK”, Republika Online, 1 Jun 2014, http://www.republika.co.id/berita/pemilu/hot-politic/14/07/01/n7zvp7-alasan-forum-ulama-haramkan-memilih-jokowijk, accessed 5 Nov 2014.

Azra, Azyumardi, Indonesia, Islam, and Democracy: Dynamics in a Global Context, Jakarta: Solstice, 2006.

Baswedan, Anies Rasyid, “Political Islam in Indonesia: Present and Future Trajectory”, Asian Survey, vol. 44, no. 5, 2004, pp. 669–90 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/as.2004.44.5.669].

Buehler, Michael, “Islam and Democracy in Indonesia”, Insight Turkey, vol. 11, no. 4, 2009, pp. 51–63, accessed 8 May 2015.

Burhani, Ahmad Najib, “Political ‘Fatwa’ For Presidential Election is Not Legally Binding”, The Jakarta Post, 9 Jun 2004, http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2004/06/09/political-039fatwa039-presidential-election-not-legally-binding.html, accessed 11 May 2014.

Croissant, Aurel and Beate Martin (eds.), Between Consolidation and Crisis: Elections and Democracy in Five Nations in Southeast Asia, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2006.

Finnemore, Martha, National Interests in International Society, New York: Cornell University Press, 1996.

Frueh, Jamie, Political Identity and Social Change: The Remaking of the South African Social Order, Albany: State University of New York Press, 2013.

Hopf, Ted, “The Promise of Constructivism in International Relations Theory”, International Security, vol. 23, no. 1, 1998, pp. 171–200 [http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2539267].

Indonesia Presidential Election Results 2009: An Analysis, 2009, http://www.apcoworldwide.com/content/pdfs/IndonesiaPresidentialElectionResults2009.pdf, accessed 15 Oct 2014.

Kalsum, Umi, “200 Kiai-Habib Dukung Hamzah”, detiknews, 20 Sep 2014, http://news.detik.com/read/2004/05/29/164350/ 159079/10/200-kiai-habib-dukung-hamzah?n992204fksberita, accessed 20 Oct 2014.

“Kebangkitan Seminggu Terakhir Head to Head Jokow-JK vs Prabowo-Hatta”, LSI; Lingkaran Survei Indonesia, 7 Jul 2014, http://lsi.co.id/lsi/2014/07/07/kebangkitan-seminggu-terakhir-head-to-head-jokowi-jk-vs-prabowo-hatta/, accessed 10 Oct 2014.

Kristanto, Ignatius, “Jawa Timur, Tembok Pembatas Mulai Terbelah”, Kompas, 22 Jun 2009.

Muhyddin, Muhammad, “Kubu Jokowi Fahri Hamzah Lukai 37 Juta Santri”, Tempo.co, 7 Feb 2014, http://pemilu.tempo.co/read/news/2014/07/02/269589923/Kubu-Jokowi-Fahri-Hamzah-Lukai-37-Juta-Santri, accessed 10 Oct 2014.

Nuruddin, Irfan, “JK-Win Minta Dukungan Warga Ponpes di Magelang”, kompas.com, 19 May 2009, http://lipsus.kompas.com/grammyawards/read/2009/05/19/19313579/JK.Win.Minta.Dukungan.Warga.Ponpes.di.Magelangjk2009, accessed 5 Nov 2014.

----, “Jokowi di Mata Kiai Lokal”, www.nu.or.id, 30 Jun 2014, http://www.nu.or.id/a,public-m,dinamic-s,detail-ids,4-id,52963-lang,id-t,Jokowi+di+Mata+Kiai+Lokal-.phpx, accessed 11 Aug 2014.

Olsen, Johan P. and James G. March, “The Institutional Dynamics of International Political Order”, in International Relations Theory for the Twenty-First Century: An Introduction, ed. by Martin Griffiths, New York: Routledge, 2007.

Salim, Arskal and Azyumardi Azra, Shari’a and Politics in Modern Indonesia, Singapore: Insitute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003.

Sirry, Mun’im, “Fatwas and Their Controversy: The Case of the Council of Indonesian Ulama (MUI)”, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, vol. 44, no. 1, 2013, pp. 100–17 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022463412000641].

Slater, Dan, “The Ironies of Instability in Indonesia”, Social Analysis, vol. 50, no. 1, 2006, pp. 208–13 [http://dx.doi.org/10.3167/015597706780886067].

The Carter Center 2004 Indonesia Election Report, Atlanta: The Carter Carter, 2005, https://www.cartercenter.org/documents/2161.pdf, accessed 11 May 2014.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2014.522.257-269

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2014 Leni Winarni