Understanding the Multidimensional Islamic Faith Through ‘Abd Al-Ghanī Al-Nābulusī’s Mystical Philosophy

Naoki Yamamoto

Abstract


This paper tries to present a new perspective on Islamic faith and Muslim identity to Muslim minorities who are challenged in practicing or following Islamic law in non-Islamic countries or non-Muslims in the contemporary world. It will uncover the multidimensional perspective of the concept of faith based on sin (dhanb) and repentance (tawbah) through the mystical philosophy of a Syrian scholar, Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī (d. 1143/1741) of the 18th century Ottoman Damascus who contributed to the field of Sufism particularly based on Ibn ‘Arabī’s thought of waḥdat al-wujūd (oneness of being) and insān kāmil (the perfect man). Nābulusī believes that anyone who lived during the inexistence of prophet’s revelation, inhabited an isolated place cut off from information about Islam, or lived in dār al-ḥarb and did not make a hijra to dār al-islām could not be regarded as sinful in their deeds. However, faith in Allah is essential and infidelity is not forgiven regardless whether or not they live in dār al-islām or dār al-ḥarb. Further, Nābulusī insists that true faith can be achieved by understanding the sin of existence; the ignorance of the difference of existence between Allah and men.

[Artikel ini menjelaskan identitas keberagamaan umat Islam minoritas yang dituntut untuk menerapkan syariat, namun harus hidup di negara non-muslim, dengan mendiskusikan perspektif multidimensional terhadap konsep dosa dan tobat khususnya konsep waḥdat al-wujūd dan insān kāmil yang dikembangkan oleh Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī (1143/1741), seorang sufi pemikir Syria yang hidup di masa kesultanan Usmani di Damaskus. Nābulusī berkeyakinan bahwa siapa saja yang hidup sebelum turunnya wahyu di masa Nabi, hidup di daerah terpencil yang tidak mengenal Islam, atau hidup di dār al-ḥarb dan tidak hijrah ke dār al-islām, tidaklah dibebani dosa atas perbuatannya. Namun demikian, iman kepada Allah amatlah penting dan kekufuran tidaklah dimaafkan, baik seseorang tersebut hidup di dār al-islām ataupun dār al-ḥarb. Nābulusī beranggapan bahwa iman yang hakiki bisa dicapai dengan memahami dosa eksistensial, yaitu mempersamakan eksistensi Allah dan manusia.]


Full Text:

PDF

References


Akkach, Samer, ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi: Islam and the Enlightenment, Oxford: One World Publications, 2007

----, Letters of a Sufi Scholar: The Correspondence of ‘Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī (1641-1731), Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010.

----, Intimate Invocations: Al-Ghazzī’s Biography of ‘Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī (1641-1731), Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012.

Alauddin, Bakri, ’Abdalġanī an-Nābulsī (1143/1731): oeuvre, vie et doctrine, Thèse présentée pour l’obtention du Doctorat ès-Lettres, Université de Paris I - Panthéon – Sorbonne, 1985.

----, al-Wujūd al-Ḥaqq, Damascus: Institut Français de Damas, 1995.

al-Nābulusī, ‘Abd al-Ghanī, ‘Abd al-Fattāḥ, Sa‘īd (ed.), Īḍāḥ Maqṣūd min Ma‘nā Waḥdat al-Wujūd wa Masā’il Tawḥīd wa Taṣawwuf, Cairo: Dār al-Āfāq al-‘Arabīya, 2008.

----, Khumrat al-Ḥān wa-Rannat al-Alḥān, Cairo: Maktaba al-Qāhira, 2005.

----, Rashḥāt al-Aqlām Sharḥ Kifāyat al-Ghulām, Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmīya, 2005.

‘Aṭā, ‘Abd al-Qādir, al-Taṣawwuf al-Islāmī: baina al-Aṣāla wa al-Iqtibās fī ‘Asr al-Nābulusī, Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, 1987.

----, Ḥaqā’iq al-Islām wa Asrāruh, Cairo: Dār al-Turāth al-‘Arabī, 1986.

Bin Nāṣir al-Barrāk, ‘Abd al-Raḥmān, Sharḥ al-‘Aqīda al-Tadmurīya, Riyad: Dār al-Tadmurīya, 2011.

Chittick, William.C, The Self-Disclosure of God: Principles of Ibn al-‘Arabī’s Cosmology, New York: State University of New York Press, 1997.

----, “The Five Divine Presences: From al-Qunawi to al-Qaysari”, The Muslim World 72, 1982, pp. 107-128.

Farghalī, ‘Alī Ma‘bad, ‘Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī: Ḥayātuh, Ārā’uh, Cairo: Maktaba al-Īmān, 2005.

Homerin, Emil, “On the Battleground: Al-Nābulusī’s Encounters with a Poem by Ibn al-Fāriḍ,” Journal of Arabic Literature 38. pp. 352-410, 2007 [DOI:10.1163/157006408X292952].

Kamada, Shigeru, “Nābulusī’s Commentary on Ibn Fāriḍ’s Khamrīyah,” Orient 18, 1982, pp. 19-40.

Lane, Andrew. N, Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi’s (1641-1731) Commentary on Ibn Arabi’s Fusus al-Hikam: An Analysis and Interpretation, Ph.D. Diss. Oxford University, 2001.

Nakata Ko, “Kyusai no Kyokai: Islam ni okeru Ikyouto no Kyusai (A Border of Salvation: Salvation of Non-Muslim according to Islam”, JISMOR 2, 2005, pp. 63-77.

Qaraḍāwī, Yūsuf, Fiqh al-Aqallīyāt al-Muslima, Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq, 2001.

Ramadan, Tariq, Western Muslims and the Future of Islam, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Schlegell, Barbara Rosenow von, “Sufism in the Ottoman Arab World: Shaykh ‘Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī (d.1143/1731)”, Ph. D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1997.

Sirriyeh, Elizabeth, Sufi Visionary of Ottoman Damascus: ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi 1641-1731, London and New York: Routledge Curzon, 2005.

----, Sufi and Anti-Sufi: The Defense, Rethinking and Rejections of Sufism in the Modern World, Richmond: Curzon Press, 1999.

Vīktūr, Sa‘īd Bāsīl, Waḥda al-Wujūd ‘inda Ibn ‘Arabī wa ‘Abd al-Ghanī al-Nābulusī, Beirut: Dār al-Fārābī, 2006.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2013.512.389-407

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2013 Naoki Yamamoto